Hay fever is a type of allergic rhinitis caused by pollen or spores. Allergic rhinitis is a condition where an allergen (something that causes an allergic reaction) makes the inside of your nose inflamed (swollen).
Hay fever usually occurs in spring and summer, when there is more pollen in the air. Trees, grass and plants release pollen as part of their reproductive process. Mould and fungi also release tiny reproductive particles, called spores.
People with hay fever can experience their symptoms at different times of the year, depending on which pollens or spores they are allergic to.
Hay fever symptoms vary in severity and your symptoms may be worse some years than others, depending on the weather conditions and the pollen count (see below). Your symptoms may start at different times of the year depending on which types of pollen you are allergic to.
The symptoms of hay fever include:
Less commonly, you may experience:
Hay fever is an allergic reaction
Hay fever symptoms are caused by protein molecules in pollen grains. The immune system ‘over-reacts’ to these allergens, which it manifests in the form of an allergic reaction. Immune molecules known as Immunoglobulin E are produced and these cause the release of the inflammatory chemical called histamine from mast cells (a type of immune cell).
It is histamine that produces the characteristic symptoms of an allergic reaction.
A non-allergic person’s immune system will not produce this reaction on exposure to allergens in pollen.
Hay fever and everyday life
Research shows that students’ academic performance may be affected during exams, given that the exam season usually coincides with the height of the pollen season.
How common is hay fever?
Hay fever is a relatively new disease, first described in 1819. It took nine years to accumulate enough hay fever cases to present a paper on this new condition to a medical journal. Now hay fever is much more common, particularly in the UK, which has more cases than anywhere else in the world (followed closely by Ireland, New Zealand, Australia and Canada). Hay fever:
Hay fever and asthma
If you have asthma, your asthma symptoms may get worse when you have hay fever. Sometimes, asthma symptoms only occur when you have hay fever. These symptoms include:
Hay fever symptoms are likely to be worse if the pollen count is high. The pollen count is the number of grains of pollen in one cubic metre of air.
Air samples are collected in traps set on buildings two or three storeys high. Taking samples from this height gives a better indication of the pollen in the air from both local and distant sources. Traps on the ground would only collect pollen from nearby trees and plants.
The air is sucked into the trap and the grains of pollen are collected on either sticky tape or microscope slides (glass plates). The pollen is then counted. Samples are usually taken every two hours, and the results are averaged for a 24-hour period.
The pollen forecast is usually given as:
Hay fever symptoms usually begin when the pollen count is over 50. The pollen count is usually given as part of the weather forecast during the spring and summer months.
Which pollens are you allergic to?
Spores that cause hay fever can come from:
When is there most pollen?
Different trees and plants produce their pollen at different times of the year.
Depending on which pollen you are allergic to, you may experience your hay fever symptoms at different times. In the UK:
The effect of the weather
The amount of sunshine, rain or wind affects how much pollen plants release and how much the pollen is spread around. On humid and windy days, pollen spreads easily. On rainy days, pollen may be cleared from the air, causing pollen levels to fall
During their pollen season, plants release pollen early in the morning. As the day gets warmer and more flowers open, pollen levels rise. On sunny days, the pollen count is highest in the early evening.
Confusing hay fever with other conditions
A person who appears to be suffering hay fever symptoms may be suffering from:
Alleviating hay fever
It is very difficult to completely avoid pollen or spores. However, reducing your exposure to the substances that trigger your hay fever should ease the severity of your symptoms. Follow the advice below to avoid being exposed to excessive amounts of pollen and spores.
Finally, check the pollen count regularly to know when your efforts need to be more concentrated.
Can an air cleaner help?
While numerous manufacturers of ‘air cleaners’ / ‘air filters’ claim to be able to clear pollen from the air, they can only reduce, not eliminate, the problem, because: